June 29, 2021

Introducing the Standard for Safety for Automated Mobile Platforms (AMPs)


In many warehouses and e-commerce fulfillment centers, automated mobile platforms, also known as autonomous mobile robots, follow predetermined travel paths while moving payloads from one area to another. Because of the increasing prevalence of AMPs in industrial and material handling environments, UL Standards & Engagement published UL 3100, the Standard for Safety for Automated Mobile Platforms (AMPs), to help ensure AMPs can safely perform automated functions.

Mobile platforms covered by UL 3100 are intended for lifting, carrying, product picking, towing and similar activities. These actions may be provided by a gripping attachment, suction attachment, scope attachment or similar mechanism to lift or carry the load.  

The first edition of the Standard provides requirements for applicable safety risks in industrial environments including hazard and injury prevention, as well as object detection and avoidance, risk assessment, functional safety, robotic payloads and product integration.

Safety risks

UL 3100 provides requirements intended to reduce fire risks, including containing any fire which occurs inside the product until it can be extinguished. Additional requirements help limit human contact with moving parts, pinch points, sharp edges, and components that would present a potential shock hazard.

The Standard also provides requirements for batteries and battery management systems (BMS) to help mitigate thermal runaway. AMPs use either lead-acid batteries or lithium-based batteries which, if rechargeable, are charged through a conductive system while either on-board or off-board the device. When the battery management system is included as part of a battery pack, the applicable battery standards (UL 2580, UL 2271 and UL 62133) will address the BMS. 

Additionally, the Standard provides requirements for object detection and avoidance, to help ensure an AMP is able to mitigate the risk of injury and other hazards by detecting people and objects in its travel path.

Technical committee meetings

Members of the TC for UL 3100 include individuals representing companies and organizations from the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Denmark, South Korea, Austria, India and China. We aim to maintain a balance of participants, with no interest category comprising more than one-third of the TC membership balance. To improve the current balance for TC 3100, membership is still open to participants in the following interest categories: Authorities Having Jurisdiction (AHJ), Commercial/Industrial Users, Consumer, General Interest, Government, Supply Chain, and Testing and Standards Organizations. If you are interested in applying for TC  3100 membership or are aware of potential candidates for this TC, please contact the TC Project Manager.

Open process

Our standards development process is open to anyone, and comments and proposals can be submitted at any time through our online Collaborative Standards Development System (CSDS). If you would like to propose changes to UL 3100, submit a Proposal Request at

UL 3100 is available for purchase and free digital access in English and French on the UL Standards Sales Site. The creation of a free account is required to access the digital view. 

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